Churning or Lifeline? Life Stories From De-industrialised Communities
One of the key features of the economic history of North East England was its dependency on large scale heavy industries such as coal mining, iron and steel and ship building. Fowler et al, (2001, p.120-135), argues ‘that communities were created around these industries and became dependent on them’. The working class was employed in these traditional industries with the insurance, according to Friedman (1980, p.158), of ‘cradle to grave’ employment and the respect and self-esteem that accompanied it was actively dismantled. These industries employed tens of thousands of workers, mainly men and their decline has had an immense effect on individuals, families and communities. According to Pimlott (1981, p.51), the ‘speed of economic change’ that took place from 1973 has caused deprivation and ‘psychological problems’ and a ‘loss of self-esteem’ in North East industrial working class communities.
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